In 2021, corn imported from Ukraine accounted for 34.7% of domestic imports of this product. According to INE, in the European Union, only the Netherlands showed greater dependence on maize from Ukraine (39.7%).
In fact, between 2017 and 2021, Ukraine was always the main supplier of maize, representing, on average, 34.4% of national imports of this product.
Mainly due to maize, of Ukrainian imports, agricultural products were the most representative group (average weight of 73.5% of the total). After maize, the second most important product in the set of agricultural products imported from Ukraine was crude sunflower oil (except for technical or industrial uses), with Ukraine representing 51.4% of Portuguese imports of this product.
Rapeseed or rapeseed seeds were the third most important product in Ukrainian agricultural imports, accounting for 30.6% of total domestic imports of this product.
After agricultural products, the other groups of products most imported by Portugal from Ukraine were base metals (19.1%), essentially cast iron, iron and steel, machinery and equipment (1.4%), food products (1 .2%) and wood and cork (1.1%). Together, these five product groups accounted for, on average, 96.2% of Ukraine's imports.
Imports from Russia
From Russia, in 2021, the main products imported by Portugal were petroleum oils or bituminous minerals (except crude oils), representing 16.3% of the total imported last year of these products. Liquefied natural gas follows, representing 16.6% of the total.
Even so, says the INE, these proportions are lower than the EU average (17.5% and 33.5%, respectively).
INE also states that, between 2017 and 2021, transactions with Ukraine accounted for 0.1% of total exports and 0.3% of imports. The highest value in imports was in 2021 with 297 million euros.
With Russia, in the same period, exports to that country represented 0.3% of total exports and imports 1.5% of total imports. In 2017, imports from Russia reached the highest value of 1,577 million euros, 74.5% of which corresponded to crude oil or bituminous minerals (in that year, Russia was the main supplier of this product to Portugal).