There are two common options for saying Please: Por favor or Se faz favor.
When it comes to 'Thank you', men say Obrigado, and women say Obrigada. These are said to be leftover from an expression that went more or less like, I am obliged (obrigado/a) to return the favour.
Because you are the one feeling obliged, your thank you must reflect your own gender, not that of the person you’re speaking to. That's why men end the word in o and women end the word in a. This -o/-a switch is a common (but not foolproof!) pattern for making words masculine or feminine in Portuguese.
After hearing an Obrigado / Obrigada, you have a few options for saying You’re welcome. The most typical response is De nada, which literally means 'Of nothing'. It’s almost like saying you are obliged to nothing.
Here are a few other alternatives and their approximate translations:
Não tem de quê - There's no need to thank me
Com certeza - Of course / Certainly / Sure
Ora essa! - Oh, please!
We can't stop here without mentioning how to say Sorry! There are a few options, but Desculpe is the most versatile word to remember. It can be used to apologize, to politely ask for someone’s attention, or to excuse yourself.
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A little kindness goes a long way...
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